Englishwoman Mary Lindell and American Virginia d'Albert-Lake, both leaders of escape and evasion lines in France, survived. They purposely adjusted the machines to make the fabric thin at the heel and the toes, causing the socks to wear prematurely at those places when the German soldiers marched. Ravensbrück Concentration Camp … Many were medically experimented on or killed. The German Communist, Margarete Buber-Neumann, came to Ravensbrück as an inmate after nearly two years in a Russian Soviet Gulag. See Carola Sachse: "Jewish forced labor and non-Jewish women and men at Siemens from 1940 to 1945", in. In 1943, for instance, a group of Norwegian women came to the camp (Norwegians/Scandinavians were ranked by the Nazis as the purest of all Aryans). The first female prisoners from Lichtenburg concentration camp were transferred to Ravensbrück in the spring of … The exhibition's information boards describe the origins of the transports and how they developed over time and explain the different types of trains, where they arrived, and the part played by the local residents. Located alongside Lake Schwedt, about 50 miles north of Berlin, Ravensbrück opened on May 15, 1939, and, three days later, the first group of 867 women arrived from Lichtenburg in Saxony, a fortress that had been used as a women's camp … Select from premium Camp De Concentration De Ravensbrück images of the highest quality. [31], With the Soviet Red Army's rapid approach in the spring of 1945, the SS leadership decided to remove as many prisoners as they could, in order to avoid leaving live witnesses behind who could testify as to what had occurred in the camp. Ravensbrück est situé tout près d’une mine de sel, c’est pratique, les meufs n’ont qu’à faire quelques mètres pour être au boulot, mais dans cette mine, il n’y a pas de travail pour les près de 70.000 détenues. The greatest number of prisoners at one time in Ravensbrück was probably about 45,000.[7]. In 2019, the archaeological remains of Polish women were found in the Fürstenbeg cemetery. If the wounds did not heal, they later found out that it would result in execution. In the spring of 1941, the SS established a small adjacent camp for male inmates, who built and managed the camp's gas chambers in 1944. Not only did they detail medical experiments but brothel work as well. She documented her ordeal alongside her sister Betsie ten Boom in her book The Hiding Place, which was eventually produced as a motion picture. All-Inclusive Ravensbrück Concentration Camp Memorial Private Tour from Berlin. These prisoners came from over 30 nations and included Jewish, Sinti and Roma people. At any single time, a report overseer (Rapportführerin) handled the roll calls and general discipline of the internees. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}53°11′20.4″N 13°10′12″E / 53.189000°N 13.17000°E / 53.189000; 13.17000, Women's concentration camp in Germany during World War II, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHelm2015 (. Karl-Heinz Roth: "Forced labor in the Siemens Group", with a summary table, page 157. The list is one of the most important documents, preserved in the last moments of the camp operation by members of the Polish underground girl guides unit "Mury" (The Walls). Out of the 74 Polish victims, called Kaninchen, Króliki, Lapins, or "Rabbits" by the experimenters, five died as a result of the experiments, six with unhealed wounds were executed, and (with assistance from other inmates) the rest survived with permanent physical damage. By Roderick Miller. For the inaugural opening of the National Memorial site, a scaled-up version of Tragende (Woman with Burden) was created (under the supervision of Fritz Cremer) and exhibited. Shortly before the end of the war, the International, Danish and Swedish Red Cross evacuated around 7,500 prisoners to Sweden, Switzerland and France. [27], The bodies of those killed in the camp were cremated in the nearby Fürstenberg crematorium until 1943 when SS authorities constructed a crematorium at a site near the camp prison. Conditions quickly deteriorated. The first type tested the efficacy of sulfonamide drugs. Some detainees had their hair shaved, such as those from Czechoslovakia and Poland, but other transports did not. Select from premium Camp De Concentration De Ravensbrück of the highest quality. Besides the male Nazi administrators, the camp staff included over 150 female SS guards assigned to oversee the prisoners at some point during the camp's operational period. Later the children in the camp represented almost all nations of Europe occupied by Germany. Le camp de concentration de Uckermark, est construit au printemps 1942, sur ordre de la Police Criminelle du Reich, à 1,5km du camp de concentration de Ravensbrück, par les prisonniers hommes de ce camp. From 1941 onward, Ravensbrück was used as a place of execution. [21] The women either stayed in the camp or eventually served in other camps. Catalog of Pins and Medals Commemorating Ravensbrück Concentration Camp Project Siemens@Ravensbrück 53°11′20.4″N 13°10′12″E  … Sherman, Judith, & Carrasco, Davíd. Two types of experiments were conducted on the Polish political prisoners. In 1943, one of the many letters read "Further details of operations. For making toe-warmers with camp wool for her stockings in the winter, a prisoner would get 25 blows and two weeks in the bunker". Ravensbrück did not have its own burial site, so most of the bodies were kept nearby at the site of their cremation. The Ravensbrück concentration camp is in command of 46,070 female and 7,858 male prisoners, half of them employed in branch camps. The second set of experiments studied bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration, and the possibility of transplanting bones from one person to another. The women’s concentration camp was continually expanded until 1945. The question of how we should commemorate the concentration camps is a live one. We were to die of misery, hunger and exhaustion...when we arrived at Ravensbrück, it was the worst. In 1954, the sculptor Will Lammert was commissioned to design the memorial site between the crematorium, the camp wall, and Schwedtsee Lake. As the women were being cleaned, their clothes were burned. Many lost their mothers and as a result, lost what little protection they did have. We didn't even feel like we had the value of cattle. Concealed in the sofa of Krystyna Czyż, they spent decades hidden away until their donation. L' Amicale de Ravensbrück et l' Association des déportées et internées de la Résistance ont publié une remarquable monographie. The bronze sculpture “Burdened Woman” (“Tragende”) was at the heart of the memorial’s design on the banks of lake Schwedt. Construction of the camp began in November 1938 by the order of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler and was unusual in that it was intended exclusively to hold female inmates. Other victims included the Roman Catholic nun Élise Rivet, Elisabeth de Rothschild (the only member of the Rothschild family to die in the Holocaust), Russian Orthodox nun St. Maria Skobtsova, the 25-year-old French Princess Anne de Bauffremont-Courtenay, Milena Jesenská, lover of Franz Kafka,[12] and Olga Benário, wife of the Brazilian Communist leader Luís Carlos Prestes. The Ravensbrück Concentration Camp The Ravensbrück Concentration Camp, built starting in November 1938 close to the small town of Fürstenberg/Havel, was the only large concentration camp on German soil which was designed as a “protective custody camp” for … The creation of art or personal belongings in the camp was strictly prohibited. Countless women — the exact number is not known — were shot to death. Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. Sherman writes of her childhood home in Kurima, Czechoslovakia, and of several deportations, hiding in homes and in the forest, undergoing torture, and witnessing murder in Ravensbrück before her final liberation. Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ravensbrück. Buber-Nuemann wrote how her first meal in Ravensbrück exceeded her expectations, when she was served sweet porridge with dried fruit (backobst), plus a generous portion of bread, margarine, and sausage. These experiments involved deliberate cutting into and infecting of leg bones and muscles with virulent bacteria, cutting nerves, introducing substances like pieces of wood or glass into tissues, and fracturing bones. 129ff. Many of these artifacts were lost once some of the survivors reached Sweden. Les prisonnières devaient défiler devant les gardes et médecins SS et montrer qu’elles étaient encore en … Ravensbrück served as a training base for some 3,500 female SS (Nazi paramilitary corps) supervisors who staffed it and other concentration camps. On the site of the former concentration camp, there is a memorial. ... (from Ohio USA and Montreal Canada) and took a day trip to Ravensbrück. Bear in mind that in the course of 20 months about a quarter of all the Polish women from political transports have been shot. SOE agents who survived were Yvonne Baseden and Eileen Nearne, who was a prisoner in 1944 before being transferred to another work camp and escaping. [34] Ravensbrück archaeology is hard to come by from the actual site itself, as most of its artifacts escaped with its survivors. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, about 50,000 of them perished from disease, starvation, overwork and despair; some 2,200 were killed in the gas chambers. [11], Among the thousands executed at Ravensbrück were four members of the British World War II organization Special Operations Executive (SOE): Denise Bloch, Cecily Lefort, Lilian Rolfe and Violette Szabo. Erfahren Sie mehr in unseren Datenschutzbestimmungen, International Youth Meeting Centre | Ravensbrück Youth Hostel, Ravensbrück Memorial travelling exhibitions, Memorial to the Victims of Euthanasia Murders. Stiftung Brandenburgische Gedenkstätten, [Translate to English:] Wir verwenden Cookies auf dieser Website. The other group included mostly children who were brought with Polish mothers sent to Ravensbrück after the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Prisoners could be punished if caught but many disregarded camp rules and continued to make art in secret. Between 1939 and 1945, some 130,000[1] to 132,000[2] female prisoners passed through the Ravensbrück camp system. Soviet prisoners of war, and German and Austrian Communists wore red triangles; common criminals wore green triangles; and Jehovah's Witnesses were labelled with lavender triangles. "The Secrets of the Second World War Comet Line are revealed", "Ravensbrück Concentration Camp: History & Overview", https://www.thefirstnews.com/article/remains-of-poles-murdered-at-ravensbrueck-concentration-camp-found-8305, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10761-017-0433-2#Fig2, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10761-017-0433-2#Fig4, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10761-017-0433-2/figures/2, https://www.thefirstnews.com/article/extraordinary-story-of-secret-letter-writing-group-who-used-own-urine-as-invisible-ink-to-reveal-death-camp-horrors-10040, If This Is A Woman: Inside Ravensbruck: Hitler's Concentration Camp for Women, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, "Medical Experiments Conducted on Polish Inmates", Site created in conjunction with a group of Dutch survivors from the camp, "Voices from Ravensbrück – a unique collection of sources from the survivors of Ravensbrück", Collection of testimonies concerning KL Ravensbrück in "Chronicles of Terror" testimony database, Catalog of Pins and Medals Commemorating Ravensbrück Concentration Camp, SS Main Economic and Administrative Office, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ravensbrück_concentration_camp&oldid=1003953633, Articles with German-language sources (de), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mostly female political prisoners, 48,500 Polish; 28,000 Soviet Union, 20,000-plus Jews. Ravensbrück a été le premier camp de femmes aménagé par les nazis. Previously in 1989, a mass grave was found by the cemetery accidentally. Construction of the camp began in November 1938 by the order of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler and was unusual in that it was intended exclusively to hold female inmates. 2015 09 15 KZ Ravensbrück Max Koegel 1 IMG 2353 S.JPG 909 × 1,092; 143 KB Ravensbrück est un village d'Allemagne situé à 80 km au nord de Berlin. One of the Communist survivors of the camp was French Resistance member Louise Magadur. But for most of the women, men and children imprisoned in Ravensbrück, the suffering did not end with their liberation. Head wardress at the Uckermark death complex of Ravensbrück was Ruth Neudeck (January 1945 – March 1945). [citation needed]. Patrícia de Paula ; Wednesday, 7 March 2012. Durch die Nutzung unserer Seiten erklären Sie sich mit dem Einsatz von Cookies einverstanden. The four survived and lived to write the letters. Additionally, temporary exhibitions of special interest are held regularly at the memorial. Several dozen block overseers (Blockführerinnen), accompanied by dogs, SS men and whips oversaw the prisoners in their living quarters in Ravensbrück, at roll call and during food distribution. Ce fut Himmler lui-même qui, à la fin de l'automne 1938, décida d'ériger un camp de concentration pour femmes à Ravensbrück, un endroit à la fois très isolé et cependant facilement accessible, et … For example, Polish women wore red triangles, denoting a political prisoner, with a letter "P" (by 1942, Polish women became the largest national component at the camp). In the course of the reorganization, which took place in the early 1990s, the Museum des antifaschistischen Widerstandskampfes was replaced by two new permanent exhibitions: "Women of Ravensbrück", which displays the biographies of 27 former prisoners, and "Ravensbrück. From this, 56 from the Lublin September transport, of which 36 were infection operations (without incision), 20 bone operations. These artifacts give records and witness accounts from Ravensbrück and are now being preserved. While only a piece of plastic, if caught could be considered an act of "sabotage" and largely punishable. Many survivors protested, but few dared to say why. [22] In 2006, they expelled Elfriede Rinkel, an 84-year-old woman who had lived in San Francisco since 1959. In an interview done just after liberation in Sweden, Interview 420 describes: "The smallest infractions were elevated to the level of 'sabotage', which brought the highest possible sentences: whipping, the bunker, and even execution by shooting. [31] The survivors of the death march were liberated in the following hours by a Soviet scout unit. De nombreuses femmes sont alors envoyées sur d’autres mines de sel (il en existe … On a bitterly cold day in November I took the train from Berlin to Fürstenburg, a village to the north, where women destined for Ravensbrück were let out of their overcrowded cattle trucks to be marched to the camp itself. More than 20,000 of the total were Jewish. Vue générale de Ravensbrück à la libération. Regular Aufseherinnen were not usually granted access to the internees' compound unless they supervised inside work details. See more ideas about wwii, concentration camps, holocaust. They reduced us to nothing. (2005). Since 1984, the former SS headquarters have housed the Museum des antifaschistischen Widerstandskampfes (Museum of Anti-fascist Resistance). At the same time a new, permanent outdoor exhibition was opened, on the theme of the train transports to Ravensbrück. This page was last edited on 31 January 2021, at 13:55. Ravensbrück era un camp de concentració nazi exclusivament per a dones situat prop de Fürstenberg, a la regió alemanya de Mecklenburg. Between 120 and 140 Romani women were sterilized in the camp in January 1945. Topography and History of the Women's Concentration Camp", which provides information about the origins of the camp, describes daily life in the camp, and explains the principle of Vernichtung durch Arbeit (extermination through work). The Gestapo further categorised the inmates as: political 83.54%, anti-social 12.35%, criminal 2.02%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.11%, rassenschande (racial defilement) 0.78%, other 0.20%. One form of resistance was the secret education programmes organised by prisoners for their fellow inmates. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The hidden horrors of Ravensbrück, a concentration camp for women", https://slate.com/human-interest/2015/04/remembering-the-lesbians-prostitutes-and-resisters-of-ravensbruck-concentration-camp.html, https://www.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/violence-female-guards-nazi-concentration-camps-1939-1945-reflections-dynamics-and-logics-p, http://www.simon-wiesenthal-archiv.at/02_dokuzentrum/02_faelle/e05_braunsteiner.html, "Sweet lady surprise: Nazi prison-guard past", "KZ Ravensbrück-Women Incarcerated-Part 2". This central symbolic figure, also known as the "Pietà of Ravensbrück", stands atop a stele on the peninsula in Lake Schwedtsee. Elsie Maréchal, a young Belgian who worked with the Comet Line, was a prisoner at Ravensbrück from 1943 to 1945. To find out just what had gone wrong, camp doctors would purposely maximize the potential for infections by inserting glass shards and by injecting various virulent bacteria, in the open wounds before … The treatment by the SS women in Ravensbrück was normally brutal. In 1939, the SS had the largest women’s concentration camp in the German Reich built in the Prussian village of Ravensbrück, not far from Fürstenberg, a health resort that historically had belonged to Mecklenburg. [citation needed], The women forced to work at Ravensbrück concentration camp's industries used their skills in sewing and their access to the factory to make soldiers' socks. [8] During the first year of their stay in the camp, from August 1940 to August 1941, roughly 47 women per day died. For example, quite often it was for rassenschande ("racial pollution"). [4] More than 80 percent were political prisoners. Jan 3, 2016 - Explore Cathy W's board "Ravensbruck Concentration Camp - WWII", followed by 266 people on Pinterest. Later Noske was freed by advancing Allied troops from a Gestapo prison in Berlin.[18]. Ravensbrück was a women's concentration camp during World War II, located in northern Germany, 90 km (56 mi) north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel).. Construction of the camp began in November 1938 by the order of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler and was unusual in that the camp … From there the women delivered intelligence about the medical experiments. Quand celui de Lichtenburg a fermé, en 1939, il était le seul camp (à distinguer des sous-camps) exclusivement réservé aux femmes. We took the train to Fürstenberg and walked to the camp like (but in better condition) the inmates did it between 1939 and 1945. Ravensbrück, Nazi German concentration camp for women (Frauenlager) located in a swamp near the village of Ravensbrück, 50 miles (80 km) north of Berlin. Up to his death in 1957, the artist created a large number of sculpted models of women. The women who were too weak to work were transferred to be gassed at the Uckermark "Youth Camp" located nearby Ravensbruck or to … To the left towards the watchtower, I saw a white wooden barrack and beside it a large cage, the size of a birdhouse the like you see at a zoo. The consequence was that it was all burned. [35], These were things secretly made in the camp. Between 1942 and 1943, almost all Jewish women from the Ravensbrück camp were sent to Auschwitz in several transports, following Nazi policy to make Germany Judenrein (cleansed of Jews). Along with the victims of “14 f 13”, a number of Jewish prisoners were taken to the Bernburg “sanatorium and nursing home” and were murdered in the facility’s gas chamber. The technical term for a female guard in a Nazi camp was an Aufseherin. The largest single group of women executed at the camp were 200 young Polish members of the Home Army. All had been deceived into signing the consent form, having been told by the camp overseers that the German authorities would release them if they complied. Their arms and legs hanging out, and mouths and eyes wide open. It under… Deutsch: Das KZ Ravensbrück war von 1938/39 bis 1945 ein Konzentrationslager insbesondere für Frauen in der Gemeinde Ravensbrück (heute Stadt Fürstenberg/Havel) in Deutschland. Many of them died in the following weeks, months or years, and many of the survivors suffered from the consequences of their imprisonment even decades after their liberation. Other guards in the camp included Hermine Boettcher-Brueckner, Luise Danz, Irma Grese, and Margarethe de Hueber. In the course of “Operation 14 f 13”, prisoners considered infirm or unfit for work were selected and murdered. Following an evacuation order from Himmler, Ravensbrück’s commandant Fritz Suhren had the remaining 20,000 prisoners marched towards the north-west in several columns. Since 2004 there has also been an exhibition about the female guards at the Ravensbrück Women's Concentration Camp, housed in another of their former accommodation blocks. The camp memorial’s estimated figure of 132,000 women who were in the camp during the war includes about 48,500 from Poland, 28,000 from … At first, they arrived with mothers who were Romani or Jews incarcerated in the camp or were born to imprisoned women. English: Ravensbrück concentration camp ( IPA : [ʁaːfənsˈbʁʏk] ) was from 1938/39 to 1945 a concentration camp especially for women in the munincipality of Ravensbrück … Nine urns and two plaques were discovered. Up to 16 January 1943, 70 people in total have been operated on. At least two women — and possibly three — from the Channel Islands were imprisoned in Ravensbrück Concentration Camp (Konzentrationslager Ravensbrück, KZ Ravensbrück) in the town of Fürstenberg/Havel in the German state of Brandenburg, about 47 miles north of Berlin. The SS had more and more huts erected to house prisoners, and in the autumn of 1944, a large tent was added. From 1942 to 1945, medical experiments to test the effectiveness of sulfonamides were undertaken. The square and the streets seemed freshly raked. Of some 130,000 female prisoners who passed through the Ravensbrück camp, about 50,000 of them perished; some 2,200 were killed in the gas chambers. More info. In November 1938, Himmler gave the order to start building the camp at Ravensbrück. The first thing I saw was a cart with all the dead piled on it. Polish Countess Karolina Lanckoronska, an art historian and author of Michelangelo in Ravensbrück, was imprisoned there from 1943 until 1945. It spelled out: "list modem" which translates to "letter in urine". Media in category "Ravensbrück concentration camp personnel" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. January 15th, 1945. Karin Landgren Blomqvist helped the survivors but regrets this detail: The clothes one was to take care of proved to be dirty rags, infested with lice, which were according to Swedish standards too worn down to be worth cleaning. Le campreçoit les premières femmes en 1939, la majorité des détenues proviennent du camp de concentration de Lichtemburg. Search 60 Ravensbrück concentration camp, Brandenburg, Germany real estate agents to find the best real estate agent for your project. More than 120,000 women from all over Europe were imprisoned here. [14], Ravensbrück survivors who wrote memoirs about their experiences include Gemma La Guardia Gluck, sister of New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia,[15] as well as Germaine Tillion, a Ravensbrück survivor from France who published her own eyewitness account of the camp in 1975.[16]. They are … Within the camp’s perimeter wall, an industrial complex comprising several production facilities was established, where female prisoners were forced to carry out tasks traditionally considered women’s work such as sewing, weaving or knotting. Ravensbrück also served as a training camp for over 4,000 female overseers. Cyż communicated this with her brother by referring to a children's book. [citation needed], For the women in the camp, it was important to retain some of their dignity and sense of humanity. In 2005, Ravensbrück survivor Judith Sherman published a book of prose and poetry titled Say the Name. In 1939 and 1940, camp living conditions were acceptable: laundry and bed linen were changed regularly and the food was adequate, although in the first winter of 1939/40, limitations began to be noticeable. The women wrote a message invisible ink, and then in between the lines, they wrote in their own urine. Within it paraded peacocks (stolzierten) and on a climbing tree dangled monkeys and a parrot which always screamed the same word, "Mama". [17] Approximately 500 women from Ravensbrück were transferred to Dachau, where they were assigned as labourers to the Agfa-Commando; the women assembled ignition timing devices for bombs, artillery ammunition, and V-1 and V-2 rockets. [32], The SS guards, female Aufseherinnen guards, and former prisoner-functionaries with administrative positions at the camp were arrested at the end of the war by the Allies and tried at the Hamburg Ravensbrück trials from 1946 to 1948. Jewish women wore yellow triangles but sometimes, unlike the other prisoners, they wore a second triangle for the other categories. Inseams, hems, and waistbands, many had with great effort and danger for life during internment in camp managed to save personal souvenirs and treasures. Le camp de concentration de Ravensbrück était le plus grand camp pour femmes du Reich, et le deuxième plus grand dans le système concentrationnaire en général, après Auschwitz-Birkenau. As the war progressed, over 40 satellite camps in which Ravensbrück prisoners were forced into slave labour were set up all over the German Reich. It is probably the only exhibition so far at a German memorial which is dedicated solely to the subject of the transports to the camp. Around 120,000 women and children, 20,000 men and 1,200 adolescent girls and young women (imprisoned in the Uckermark “juvenile protective custody camp”) were registered as Ravensbrück prisoners between 1939 and 1945. Ravensbrück concentration camp Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. [6] By the end of 1942, the inmate population of Ravensbrück had grown to about 10,000. Sie dienen dazu, unsere Seiten nutzerfreundlicher zu machen und diese optimiert darzustellen. Ravensbrück (pronounced [ʁaːvənsˈbʁʏk]) was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km (56 mi) north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel). Chances were not good for children at Ravensbrück. [1 Some of these types of effects can be seen at the exhibition "Voices from Ravensbrück" (hosted by Lund University Library, Sweden). They didn't yet trust the people taking care of them after all they had endured. 36f, where, according to the catalogs of the International Tracing Service Arolsen and Martin Weinmann (eds.). I visited the camp … Some of these women went on to serve as chief wardresses in other camps. The male inmates built and managed the gas chambers for the camp in 1944.[9]. It instructed him to look for a message using the first letter of every line. Survivors kept them hidden in the waistbands and hems of their clothes. Ravensbrück had 70 sub-camps used for slave labour that were spread across an area from the Baltic Sea to Bavaria. This gave the soldiers sore feet. [31] Some 2,500 ethnic German prisoners remaining were released, and 500 women were handed over to officials of the Swedish and Danish Red Cross shortly after the evacuation. [28], In January 1945, prior to the liberation of the remaining camp survivors, an estimated 45,000 female prisoners and over 5,000 male prisoners remained at Ravensbrück,[30] including children and those transported from satellite camps only for gassing, which was being performed in haste. Bones are operated on both legs or just one." Aquestes característiques el feien ideal per als dos objectius principals … Ravensbrück first housed prisoners in May 1939, when the SS moved 900 women from the Lichtenburg concentration camp in Saxony. A male political prisoner, Gustav Noske, stayed in Ravensbrück concentration camp after his arrest by the Gestapo in 1944. When a new prisoner arrived at Ravensbrück she was required to wear a colour-coded triangle (a winkel) that identified her by category, with a letter sewn within the triangle indicating the prisoner's nationality. Other high ranking SS women included Christel Jankowsky, Ilse Goeritz, Margot Dreschel and Elisabeth Kammer. In the spring of 1941, the SS authorities established a small men's camp adjacent to the main camp.